Difference between revisions of "Saturated fatty acids"

From Aging Chart
Jump to: navigation, search
(Autoloading by CXLParser)
 
(6 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 195: Line 195:
 
"1J1Z91M3P-1W3MNSS-2Z8" -> "1J1Z982WG-243S1MY-3BB" [color="#0000ffff"]
 
"1J1Z91M3P-1W3MNSS-2Z8" -> "1J1Z982WG-243S1MY-3BB" [color="#0000ffff"]
 
"1J1Z9HJ9M-PN75ZT-3K2" -> "1J1Z9Q2NK-8023GC-3P4" [color="#008000ff"]
 
"1J1Z9HJ9M-PN75ZT-3K2" -> "1J1Z9Q2NK-8023GC-3P4" [color="#008000ff"]
} </graphviz>(.//.)
+
} </graphviz>(.//.)<!-- Categories list. You can add something if need. -->
<!-- Categories list. You can add something if need. -->
+
 
(.//.)<html><!--Pop-up for: Expression of  Fatty acid synthase !Pop-up-->
 
(.//.)<html><!--Pop-up for: Expression of  Fatty acid synthase !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z6P4MC-HNY22Q-2J3" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z6P4MC-HNY22Q-2J3" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Expression of  Fatty acid synthase</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Expression of  Fatty acid synthase</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20431990">PMID: 20431990</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20431990">PMID: 20431990</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Expression of  Stearoyl CoA desaturase !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Expression of  Stearoyl CoA desaturase !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z6PGLB-200VPYH-2JY" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z6PGLB-200VPYH-2JY" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Expression of  Stearoyl CoA desaturase</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Expression of  Stearoyl CoA desaturase</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20595235">PMID: 20595235</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20595235">PMID: 20595235</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Endoplasmic stress !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Endoplasmic stress !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z9HJ9M-PN75ZT-3K2" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z9HJ9M-PN75ZT-3K2" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Endoplasmic stress</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Endoplasmic stress</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19106412">PMID: 19106412</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16203857">PMID: 16203857</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19106412">PMID: 19106412</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16203857">PMID: 16203857</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: P53 !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: P53 !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z6NDS6-12M4NHV-2HH" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z6NDS6-12M4NHV-2HH" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>P53</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>P53</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20431990">PMID: 20431990</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20431990">PMID: 20431990</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Sensitivity to insulin !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Sensitivity to insulin !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z934GF-CMQ90Q-333" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z934GF-CMQ90Q-333" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Sensitivity to insulin</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Sensitivity to insulin</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10690948">PMID: 10690948</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17050683">PMID: 17050683</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16798732">PMID: 16798732</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10690948">PMID: 10690948</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17050683">PMID: 17050683</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16798732">PMID: 16798732</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Changes in structure  Of cell membranes !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Changes in structure  Of cell membranes !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z6WK9M-14G5L6K-2SV" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z6WK9M-14G5L6K-2SV" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Changes in structure  Of cell membranes</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Changes in structure  Of cell membranes</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12642594">PMID: 12642594</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10770957">PMID: 10770957</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12642594">PMID: 12642594</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10770957">PMID: 10770957</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Physical activity !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Physical activity !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J24FMQR3-1FSH6GH-1HT" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J24FMQR3-1FSH6GH-1HT" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Physical activity</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Physical activity</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17344486">PMID: 17344486</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17344486">PMID: 17344486</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: DNA damage !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: DNA damage !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z6MZTH-1THF0PZ-2GM" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z6MZTH-1THF0PZ-2GM" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>DNA damage</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>DNA damage</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"></div>
 
<div class="links"></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Apoptosis !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Apoptosis !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z9Q2NK-8023GC-3P4" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z9Q2NK-8023GC-3P4" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Apoptosis</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Apoptosis</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16203857">PMID: 16203857</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16203857">PMID: 16203857</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Oxidation of fatty acids !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Oxidation of fatty acids !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z91M3P-1W3MNSS-2Z8" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z91M3P-1W3MNSS-2Z8" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Oxidation of fatty acids</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Oxidation of fatty acids</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11010930">PMID: 11010930</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11010930">PMID: 11010930</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Atherosclerosis !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Atherosclerosis !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z99KDR-XG11YG-3DD" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z99KDR-XG11YG-3DD" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Atherosclerosis</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Atherosclerosis</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11238260">PMID: 11238260</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11306523">PMID: 11306523</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11238260">PMID: 11238260</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11306523">PMID: 11306523</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Mitochondria activity !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Mitochondria activity !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z6XLM4-RPK24G-2VN" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z6XLM4-RPK24G-2VN" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Mitochondria activity</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Mitochondria activity</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21307849">PMID: 21307849</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10802248">PMID: 10802248</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21307849">PMID: 21307849</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10802248">PMID: 10802248</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Proportion of oxidized  Low density lipoprotein !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Proportion of oxidized  Low density lipoprotein !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z982WG-243S1MY-3BB" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z982WG-243S1MY-3BB" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Proportion of oxidized  Low density lipoprotein</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Proportion of oxidized  Low density lipoprotein</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11840183">PMID: 11840183</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16288760">PMID: 16288760</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11840183">PMID: 11840183</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16288760">PMID: 16288760</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Diabetes mellitus type 2 !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Diabetes mellitus type 2 !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z9J838-H4479L-3MW" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z9J838-H4479L-3MW" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Diabetes mellitus type 2</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Diabetes mellitus type 2</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11756317">PMID: 11756317</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11508264">PMID: 11508264</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11756317">PMID: 11756317</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11508264">PMID: 11508264</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Energy capacity of cells !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Energy capacity of cells !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1ZCZQ20-1X3MH84-4RP" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1ZCZQ20-1X3MH84-4RP" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Energy capacity of cells</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Energy capacity of cells</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21307849">PMID: 21307849</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21307849">PMID: 21307849</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Telomere shortening !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Telomere shortening !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z6MJ09-8ZKFCG-2DY" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z6MJ09-8ZKFCG-2DY" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Telomere shortening</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Telomere shortening</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15149599">PMID: 15149599</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15149599">PMID: 15149599</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Restrictive or balanced  Diet !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Restrictive or balanced  Diet !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J24FLWV6-26VLXNH-1DT" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J24FLWV6-26VLXNH-1DT" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Restrictive or balanced  Diet</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Restrictive or balanced  Diet</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18367385">PMID: 18367385</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19932533">PMID: 19932533</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11451757">PMID: 11451757</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11317662">PMID: 11317662</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18367385">PMID: 18367385</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19932533">PMID: 19932533</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11451757">PMID: 11451757</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11317662">PMID: 11317662</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Increased level of  Saturated fatty acids !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Increased level of  Saturated fatty acids !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z90ZNV-4JX992-2XJ" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z90ZNV-4JX992-2XJ" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Increased level of  Saturated fatty acids</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Increased level of  Saturated fatty acids</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20431990">PMID: 20431990</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16357064">PMID: 16357064</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6981">PMID: 6981</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1908631">PMID: 1908631</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10690948">PMID: 10690948</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11606787">PMID: 11606787</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20431990">PMID: 20431990</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16357064">PMID: 16357064</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6981">PMID: 6981</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1908631">PMID: 1908631</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10690948">PMID: 10690948</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11606787">PMID: 11606787</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Palmitate !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Palmitate !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z6T8XP-1LQN62B-2P4" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z6T8XP-1LQN62B-2P4" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Palmitate</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Palmitate</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20431990">PMID: 20431990</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20431990">PMID: 20431990</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Cellular senescence !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Cellular senescence !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z6TY35-YL5WW7-2QZ" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z6TY35-YL5WW7-2QZ" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Cellular senescence</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Cellular senescence</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20431990">PMID: 20431990</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20431990">PMID: 20431990</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Inflammation !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Inflammation !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1Z9T3D9-CMQ04Y-3RC" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1Z9T3D9-CMQ04Y-3RC" style="display:none;">
 
+
<h3>Inflammation</h3>
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
 
+
<h3>Inflammation</h3>
+
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11238260">PMID: 11238260</a><br /></div>
 
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11238260">PMID: 11238260</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(.//.)<h1>Saturated fatty acids</h1>
 
</div>(.//.)<h1>Saturated fatty acids</h1>
Line 453: Line 284:
 
<p>Saturated fatty acids are fats that contain no double bonds between the carbon atoms, so it is saturated with hydrogen. Consumption of a Western diet rich in saturated fats is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. In some insulin-resistant phenotypes, this is associated with accumulation of skeletal muscle fatty acids. Direct examination in muscle cells in vitro indicates that saturated fatty acids cause insulin resistance whereas unsaturated fatty acids exert a protective effect or even improve insulin sensitivity. Saturated fats are less readily oxidized and accumulate as DAG and ceramide in vitro, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fats accumulate as IMTG or free fatty acids (FFA), thus providing a link between fatty acid subtype and insulin resistance.</p>
 
<p>Saturated fatty acids are fats that contain no double bonds between the carbon atoms, so it is saturated with hydrogen. Consumption of a Western diet rich in saturated fats is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. In some insulin-resistant phenotypes, this is associated with accumulation of skeletal muscle fatty acids. Direct examination in muscle cells in vitro indicates that saturated fatty acids cause insulin resistance whereas unsaturated fatty acids exert a protective effect or even improve insulin sensitivity. Saturated fats are less readily oxidized and accumulate as DAG and ceramide in vitro, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fats accumulate as IMTG or free fatty acids (FFA), thus providing a link between fatty acid subtype and insulin resistance.</p>
 
<p>In cell culture when telomeres are shortened past a key length or state, the Arf/Ink gene system (p16/p14 humans, p16/p19 mice) switches on and activates p53, which suppresses further cell division. The p53 gene is a key tumor suppressor and its deletion or mutation allows cancerous growth. The switching on of p53 also causes changes in fatty acid metabolism, especially down-regulation of both fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA (delta-9) desaturase. The co-suppression of these genes together with enhanced uptake of extracellular fatty acids, leads to raised levels of cellular palmitate and induction of either apoptosis or senescence. In senescent cells, the fatty acid composition of the cellular membranes alters and leads to changes in both structure and function of organelles, especially mitochondria.</p>
 
<p>In cell culture when telomeres are shortened past a key length or state, the Arf/Ink gene system (p16/p14 humans, p16/p19 mice) switches on and activates p53, which suppresses further cell division. The p53 gene is a key tumor suppressor and its deletion or mutation allows cancerous growth. The switching on of p53 also causes changes in fatty acid metabolism, especially down-regulation of both fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA (delta-9) desaturase. The co-suppression of these genes together with enhanced uptake of extracellular fatty acids, leads to raised levels of cellular palmitate and induction of either apoptosis or senescence. In senescent cells, the fatty acid composition of the cellular membranes alters and leads to changes in both structure and function of organelles, especially mitochondria.</p>
<p>Lipids, and especially omega-3 fatty acids, provided the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of diet (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. In fact the brain, after adipose tissue, is the organ richest in lipids, whose only role is to participate in membrane structure. Increased levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol-enriched very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) have been shown to increase atherosclerosis susceptibility and lead to clinical sequelae such as coronary heart disease and stroke, the major causes of morbidity and mortality in much of the world today (1). In humans it has been shown that dietary cholesterol and saturated fatty acids (SFA) increase the levels of these atherogenic lipoproteins, and current recommendations include decreasing their intake as part of a heart-healthy diet. </p>(.//.)<!-- Do not edit!  -->
+
<p>Lipids, and especially omega-3 fatty acids, provided the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of diet (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. In fact the brain, after adipose tissue, is the organ richest in lipids, whose only role is to participate in membrane structure. Increased levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol-enriched very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) have been shown to increase atherosclerosis susceptibility and lead to clinical sequelae such as coronary heart disease and stroke, the major causes of morbidity and mortality in much of the world today (1). In humans it has been shown that dietary cholesterol and saturated fatty acids (SFA) increase the levels of these atherogenic lipoproteins, and current recommendations include decreasing their intake as part of a heart-healthy diet. </p>(.//.)
 +
<!-- Do not edit!  -->
 
<html>
 
<html>
 
<link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="/aging-chart/js/jquery.qtip.min.css" />
 
<link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="/aging-chart/js/jquery.qtip.min.css" />

Latest revision as of 20:06, 30 November 2019

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Saturated fatty acids

Saturated fatty acids are fats that contain no double bonds between the carbon atoms, so it is saturated with hydrogen. Consumption of a Western diet rich in saturated fats is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. In some insulin-resistant phenotypes, this is associated with accumulation of skeletal muscle fatty acids. Direct examination in muscle cells in vitro indicates that saturated fatty acids cause insulin resistance whereas unsaturated fatty acids exert a protective effect or even improve insulin sensitivity. Saturated fats are less readily oxidized and accumulate as DAG and ceramide in vitro, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fats accumulate as IMTG or free fatty acids (FFA), thus providing a link between fatty acid subtype and insulin resistance.

In cell culture when telomeres are shortened past a key length or state, the Arf/Ink gene system (p16/p14 humans, p16/p19 mice) switches on and activates p53, which suppresses further cell division. The p53 gene is a key tumor suppressor and its deletion or mutation allows cancerous growth. The switching on of p53 also causes changes in fatty acid metabolism, especially down-regulation of both fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA (delta-9) desaturase. The co-suppression of these genes together with enhanced uptake of extracellular fatty acids, leads to raised levels of cellular palmitate and induction of either apoptosis or senescence. In senescent cells, the fatty acid composition of the cellular membranes alters and leads to changes in both structure and function of organelles, especially mitochondria.

Lipids, and especially omega-3 fatty acids, provided the first coherent experimental demonstration of the effect of diet (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. In fact the brain, after adipose tissue, is the organ richest in lipids, whose only role is to participate in membrane structure. Increased levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol-enriched very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) have been shown to increase atherosclerosis susceptibility and lead to clinical sequelae such as coronary heart disease and stroke, the major causes of morbidity and mortality in much of the world today (1). In humans it has been shown that dietary cholesterol and saturated fatty acids (SFA) increase the levels of these atherogenic lipoproteins, and current recommendations include decreasing their intake as part of a heart-healthy diet.