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Revision as of 21:32, 25 January 2016

Aging Chart is a collection of community-curated pathways and knowledge related to aging.

Aging Chart makes its debut stocked with 114 pathways, networks, and concept maps on all topics related to aging, from gene-centered pathways to those describing aging processes, age-related diseases, longevity factors, and anti-aging strategies. Contributions are openly encouraged. The pathway diagrams are interactive, with clickable nodes for user-led exploration that link to related pages and pathways for any particular element of interest.

Mechanisms of Aging

Mechanisms of Aging

Basis of Longevity

Basis of Longevity




Geroprotector is a therapetics aiming at root causes of age-related diseases and as such capable of extending the life span of model animals and ultimately humans. Every day approximately 100,000 people die from agerelated diseases, and millions worldwide suffer from age-related frailty and disabilities. It is clear that geroprotectors, drugs that slow down the aging process, have a huge potential to improve the quality and increase the quantity of people’s lives. Research in model organisms has uncovered several possible candidate drugs, such as ethoxysuximide, lithium, rapamycin, resveratrol, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA). (c) Wikipedia

De-novo geroprotector design
Selective anti-cancer agents as anti-aging drugs


The field of regenerative medicine encompasses various areas of technology, such as tissue engineering, stem cells, and cloning. Tissue engineering, one of the major components of regenerative medicine, follows the principles of cell transplantation, materials science, and engineering towards the development of biological substitutes that can restore and maintain normal function. Tissue engineering strategies generally fall into two categories: the use of acellular matrices, which depend on the body’s natural ability to regenerate for proper orientation and direction of new tissue growth, and the use of matrices with cells.(c) Wikipedia


Endothelial aging

Endothelial precursor cells (EPC) provide a continual source of replenishment for damaged or senescent blood vessels. Circulating EPC are relevant in a variety of pathologies because these cells act as an endogenous mechanism of regeneration. If one were to understand the causes of endothelial dysfunction and develop methods of inhibiting these causes or stimulating regeneration of the endothelium, then progression of many diseases, as well as possible increase in healthy longevity may be achieved. Inflammation is known to suppress stem cell turnover and activity of EPC. An intervention strategy may be reduction in inflammatory states: this may be performed in a potent means by administration of agents such as TNF blockers, or more chronically by dietary supplements, caloric restriction, exercise, consuming blueberries, green tea, or statin therapy. Instead of administering EPC another therapeutic possibility is to "reposition" them or simply to mobilize them from bone marrow sources.


Thymic aging

The deterioration of the immune system with progressive aging is believed to contribute to morbidity and mortality in elderly humans due to the increased incidence of infection, autoimmunity, and cancer. Dysregulation of T-cell function is thought to play a critical part in these processes. One of the consequences of an aging immune system is the process termed thymic involution, where the thymus undergoes a progressive reduction in size due to profound changes in its anatomy associated with loss of thymic epithelial cells and a decrease in thymopoiesis. . This decline in the output of newly developed T cells results in diminished numbers of circulating naı¨ve T cells and impaired cellmediated immunity. The use of cytokines such as IL-7 and hormonal agonists such as GH, GHS, and IGF-1 to promote thymopoiesis seems attractive given their multitude of effects and low toxicity in humans. Each of these mediators has been shown to promote thymopoiesis and stimulate thymic re-growth upon administration into aged animals. However, their inability to fully restore thymic mass has dampened the enthusiasm of a number of clinical researchers toward their therapeutic use in the elderly and immunosuppressed patients. Such therapies in combination with bone marrow or stem cell transplants may yield even better results. Specific changes in diet and nutrition, exercise, homeopathic medications, control of psychological stress, and pain alleviation have all been shown to exert positive effects on immune function, and several of these have been shown to influence thymic activity.


Skin Aging

The etiology of aging human skin includes intrinsic physiologic changes greatly accelerated by photoaging, predominantly through exposure to UV light. Prenatal (fetal) tissue has been shown to possess healing characteristics and regenerative effects. A proprietary tissue engineering technology has been developed to produce a soluble human extracellular matrix material with growth factors and proteins. Neonatal cells are cultured on microbeads under conditions of low oxygen tension. This human cell-conditioned media (hCCM) contains a variety of growth factors and cytokines similar to those found in fetal cells and has been incorporated into a topical preparation for use in facial wound healing (after laser resurfacing procedures) and improving the appearance of aging skin.


Gene Therapy

The role of genes in determining the duration of lifespan is primarily in terms of assuring what has been termed “essential lifespan” (ELS), or the “warranty period” of a species, defined as the time required to fulfill the Darwinian purpose of life, that is successful reproduction and continuation of generations. genes that do influence longevity are those that have evolved in accordance with the life history of a species for assuring ELS. Such genes are termed longevity assurance genes or vitagenes. Several lines of evidence support the view that natural survival and longevity of a species is a function of maintenance and repair capacities.

Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC1.15.1.1) is a ubiquitous enzyme involved in the first line of cellular defense against oxidative stress, which rapidly converts superoxide anion radicals to hydrogen peroxide. Since SOD is an important factor improving tolerance to environmental stresses in organisms, there is a desire to introduce SOD as an ingredient of medicine, food, cosmetic, etc. It has been reported that SOD is effective for the prevention and cure of various human diseases, such as arthritis, rheumatism, ischemic heart disease and radiation hazard. However, there are some obstacles to develop SOD drugs due to the unstability of purified SOD and delivery problems to targeted tissues. To generate cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruits producing high yields of SOD for an anti-aging cosmetic material as a plant bioreactor, the CuZnSOD cDNA (mSOD1) from cassava was introduced into cucumber fruits by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the ascorbate oxidase promoter with high expression in fruits. The mSOD1 gene was highly expressed in the transgenic cucumber fruits and its specific activity (units/mg protein) in these fruits was approximately 3 times higher than in those of non-transgenic plants.

Transgenic cucumber fruits that produce elevated level of an anti-aging superoxide dismutase


Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence (SENS) claims to identify the 7 causes of human aging and describes how each cause might be circumvented. The ultimate objective of SENS is the eventual elimination of age-related diseases and infirmity by repeatedly reducing the state of senescence in the organism. The SENS project consists in implementing a series of periodic medical interventions designed to repair, prevent or render irrelevant all the types of molecular and cellular damage that cause age-related pathology and degeneration, in order to avoid debilitation and death from age-related causes.

Wikipedia: Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence
A Reimagined Research Strategy for Aging
Science fact and the SENS agenda


The Human Genome Project and the following revolution in sequencing and laboratory diagnostics resulted in the vast data on genetic and epigenetic profiles of cells and tissues from people of various ages. The proposed method uses this data to construct the cloud of molecular signalling pathways involved in aging and longevity and evaluates the effects of the very large number of drugs and drug combinations to simulate the young state of the cells and tissues.

Biomarkers of aging is a biological parameter that will predict functional capability at some later age. The American Federation for Aging Research had proposed as criteria for the biomarkers of aging: i) It must predict the rate of aging; ii) It must monitor a basic process that underlies the aging process, not the effects of disease; iii) It must be able to be tested repeatedly without harming the person; iiii) It must be something that works in humans and in laboratory animals, such as mice.


Life Style

Calorie restriction (CR) is the best researched intervention in aging and has been shown to extend the life span of yeast, flies, nematodes, rotifers, water striders, grasshoppers, water fleas, spiders, mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, fish, and dogs, and has recently been shown to increase survival in primates, raising the hope that CR might be evolutionarily conserved in humans. Short-term investigations have discovered similar changes in biomarkers in humans on CR, as in model organisms, indicating a strong possibility that CR will extend the human life span. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient-sensing pathway. Nutrients such as glucose, amino and fatty acids activate mTOR and also increase insulin, which also activates mTOR. In the fat tissue, mTOR promotes adipocyte differentiation and hypertrophy, increases lipogenesis (synthesis of triglycerids) and decreases lipolysis (hydrolysis of triglycerides), leading to fat accumulation or obesity. In a vicious cycle, obesity activates mTOR. To limit its overactivation, mTOR blocks insulin signaling, causing insulin resistance. Rapamycin and calorie restriction (CR) can reverse insulin resistance.

Recent research has demonstrated that telomere maintenance might be a key integrating point for the cumulative effects of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors on aging and aging-related diseases. Treatment of stimulated T-cells with the stress hormone cortisol in vitro causes decreases in cell proliferation, decreased telomerase activity and lower hTERT mRNA levels after cell activation. In vivo, elevated levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol were found to be associated with short telomere length in PBMCs.


Featured research