Difference between revisions of "Free radicals effects"

From Aging Chart
Jump to: navigation, search
(Autoloading by CXLParser)
(Autoloading by CXLParser)
 
Line 260: Line 260:
 
(.//.)<html><!--Pop-up for: Oxidative modification of proteins  !Pop-up-->
 
(.//.)<html><!--Pop-up for: Oxidative modification of proteins  !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY53M135-20KLKW-JBB" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY53M135-20KLKW-JBB" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 271: Line 272:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Carbonylation !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Carbonylation !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1N9H027D4-2CB6N3D-1H99" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1N9H027D4-2CB6N3D-1H99" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 282: Line 284:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Free radicals  (• O2-, • OH, H2O2, ONOO-, NO2Cl) !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Free radicals  (• O2-, • OH, H2O2, ONOO-, NO2Cl) !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY52L115-SHY72C-H0Z" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY52L115-SHY72C-H0Z" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 293: Line 296:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Heavy metals !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Heavy metals !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1N9H0MBJV-KF65XD-1HKQ" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1N9H0MBJV-KF65XD-1HKQ" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 304: Line 308:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Release of inflammatory mediators and toxins !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Release of inflammatory mediators and toxins !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY539V6F-1MYW633-HWL" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY539V6F-1MYW633-HWL" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 315: Line 320:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Regulation of  proliferation  and apoptosis !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Regulation of  proliferation  and apoptosis !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY5377WC-1SBJBHL-HSY" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY5377WC-1SBJBHL-HSY" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 326: Line 332:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Replication !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Replication !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY53X43V-HRQWL2-JSM" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY53X43V-HRQWL2-JSM" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 337: Line 344:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Glycoxidation !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Glycoxidation !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1N9H034CY-1N6GK9C-1H9T" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1N9H034CY-1N6GK9C-1H9T" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 348: Line 356:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Epoxides !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Epoxides !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1N9GZW199-24SBQHG-1H56" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1N9GZW199-24SBQHG-1H56" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 359: Line 368:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Inflammatory  Reactions !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Inflammatory  Reactions !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY52VRDG-1Y81LJ5-HDK" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY52VRDG-1Y81LJ5-HDK" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 370: Line 380:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Generalized inflammation !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Generalized inflammation !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY52KJHM-GDJFCQ-GZW" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY52KJHM-GDJFCQ-GZW" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 381: Line 392:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Membrane lipids  Peroxidation !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Membrane lipids  Peroxidation !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY537ZVX-FQVXQH-HV7" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY537ZVX-FQVXQH-HV7" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 392: Line 404:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Ionizing radiation !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Ionizing radiation !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1N9H0MJR2-2649GSY-1HKV" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1N9H0MJR2-2649GSY-1HKV" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 403: Line 416:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Sulfur oxidation !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Sulfur oxidation !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1N9H02H2S-1M41TTF-1H9F" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1N9H02H2S-1M41TTF-1H9F" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 414: Line 428:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Bactericidal action !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Bactericidal action !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY52V2TJ-MJ1Q85-HB7" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY52V2TJ-MJ1Q85-HB7" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 425: Line 440:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Mitochondrial vicious cycle !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Mitochondrial vicious cycle !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY52JS8B-TG56BY-GXN" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY52JS8B-TG56BY-GXN" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 436: Line 452:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Mutagenesis !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Mutagenesis !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY53WM32-19VJBC-JRD" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY53WM32-19VJBC-JRD" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 447: Line 464:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Protein aggregates !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Protein aggregates !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY53R0ZP-5YGDYG-JLK" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY53R0ZP-5YGDYG-JLK" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 458: Line 476:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Transcription !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Transcription !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1N9GZQ2P6-264SYS6-1H1R" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1N9GZQ2P6-264SYS6-1H1R" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 469: Line 488:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Oxidation of bases !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Oxidation of bases !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY53RPMD-QHX0Z1-JN6" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY53RPMD-QHX0Z1-JN6" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 480: Line 500:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Glycation !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Glycation !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1N9H02XKK-102GCSP-1H9P" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1N9H02XKK-102GCSP-1H9P" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 491: Line 512:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Malonaldehide !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Malonaldehide !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1N9GZW5F9-P2CDY9-1H5B" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1N9GZW5F9-P2CDY9-1H5B" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 502: Line 524:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Endoperoxide !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Endoperoxide !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1N9GZVWW6-MRTTDQ-1H52" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1N9GZVWW6-MRTTDQ-1H52" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 513: Line 536:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: DNA damage !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: DNA damage !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY53MZNS-RXQQC9-JD1" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY53MZNS-RXQQC9-JD1" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 524: Line 548:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Stress-signaling !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Stress-signaling !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY52WC18-NTYKG5-HFZ" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY52WC18-NTYKG5-HFZ" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 535: Line 560:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Crosslinks !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Crosslinks !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY53VKZR-1YZV4MD-JQM" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY53VKZR-1YZV4MD-JQM" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 546: Line 572:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Reduced antioxidant level !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Reduced antioxidant level !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY52K5M2-1SKBCZM-GYQ" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY52K5M2-1SKBCZM-GYQ" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 557: Line 584:
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: External stress factors !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: External stress factors !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1HY52LRGN-SFK5XW-H1Y" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1HY52LRGN-SFK5XW-H1Y" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  

Latest revision as of 09:26, 2 August 2015

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Free radicals effects

The presence of free radicals in biological materials was discovered less than 50 years ago. The most relevant radicals in biological regulation are superoxide and NO. The superoxide anion is formed by the univalent reduction of triplet-state molecular oxygen (3 O2). This process is mediated by enzymes such as NAD(P)H oxidases and xanthine oxidase or nonenzymically by redoxreactive compounds such as the semi-ubiquinone compound of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. SODs convert superoxide enzymically into hydrogen peroxide. In biological tissues superoxide can also be converted nonenzymically into the nonradical species hydrogen peroxide and singlet oxygen (1 O2). In the presence of reduced transition metals (e.g., ferrous or cuprous ions), hydrogen peroxide can be converted into the highly reactive hydroxyl radical (•OH). The NO radical (NO•) is produced in higher organisms by the oxidation of one of the terminal guanidonitrogen atoms of L-arginine. This process is catalyzed by the enzyme NOS. Depending on the microenvironment, NO can be converted to various other reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as nitrosonium cation (NO+), nitroxyl anion (NO ̶ ) or peroxynitrite (ONOO ̶ ).

At high concentrations, free radicals and radical-derived, nonradical reactive species are hazardous for living organisms and damage all major cellular constituents. At moderate concentrations, however, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, and related reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role as regulatory mediators in signaling processes. Many of the ROS-mediated responses actually protect the cells against oxidative stress and reestablish “redox homeostasis.” Higher organisms, however, have evolved the use of NO and ROS also as signaling molecules for other physiological functions. These include regulation of vascular tone, monitoring of oxygen tension in the control of ventilation and erythropoietin production, and signal transduction from membrane receptors in various physiological processes. NO and ROS are typically generated in these cases by tightly regulated enzymes such as NO synthase (NOS) and NAD(P)H oxidase isoforms, respectively.

Excessive amounts of ROS may arise either from excessive stimulation of NAD(P)H oxidases or from less well-regulated sources such as the mitochondrial electron-transport chain. In mitochondria, ROS are generated as undesirable side products of the oxidative energy metabolism. Free radicals and other reactive species have been implicated in the pathology of over 100 human diseases. An excessive and/or sustained increase in ROS production has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, obstructive sleep apnea, and other diseases.