Difference between revisions of "Ethanol effects"

From Aging Chart
Jump to: navigation, search
(Autoloading by CXLParser)
(Autoloading by CXLParser)
Line 195: Line 195:
 
(.//.)<html><!--Pop-up for: Pancreatitis  !Pop-up-->
 
(.//.)<html><!--Pop-up for: Pancreatitis  !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S7T142-XMSCRD-8CD" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S7T142-XMSCRD-8CD" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 202: Line 203:
  
 
<h3>Pancreatitis </h3>
 
<h3>Pancreatitis </h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14576489">PMID: 14576489</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11936865">PMID: 11936865</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Alcohol dehydrogenase !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Alcohol dehydrogenase !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S7B5NW-1H61PJH-7GR" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S7B5NW-1H61PJH-7GR" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 212: Line 214:
  
 
<h3>Alcohol dehydrogenase</h3>
 
<h3>Alcohol dehydrogenase</h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17718394">PMID: 17718394</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11762128">PMID: 11762128</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Ataxia  !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Ataxia  !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S7TYK3-21ZH622-8D7" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S7TYK3-21ZH622-8D7" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 222: Line 225:
  
 
<h3>Ataxia </h3>
 
<h3>Ataxia </h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16131849">PMID: 16131849</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8870047">PMID: 8870047</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16487981">PMID: 16487981</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: NADPH oxidase !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: NADPH oxidase !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S7J6LQ-H32TRD-7SD" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S7J6LQ-H32TRD-7SD" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 232: Line 236:
  
 
<h3>NADPH oxidase</h3>
 
<h3>NADPH oxidase</h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11018074">PMID: 11018074</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22240163">PMID: 22240163</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16284359">PMID: 16284359</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Free radicals !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Free radicals !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S4ZL57-MC29Y4-4TD" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S4ZL57-MC29Y4-4TD" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 242: Line 247:
  
 
<h3>Free radicals</h3>
 
<h3>Free radicals</h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15540798">PMID: 15540798</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Lipid peroxidation !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Lipid peroxidation !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S7FGF3-29XJ5B6-7P7" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S7FGF3-29XJ5B6-7P7" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 252: Line 258:
  
 
<h3>Lipid peroxidation</h3>
 
<h3>Lipid peroxidation</h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14871588">PMID: 14871588</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20616714">PMID: 20616714</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21354120">PMID: 21354120</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Liver Fibrosis !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Liver Fibrosis !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S7PSC2-ZLNDTT-872" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S7PSC2-ZLNDTT-872" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 262: Line 269:
  
 
<h3>Liver Fibrosis</h3>
 
<h3>Liver Fibrosis</h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16139830">PMID: 16139830</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15690074">PMID: 15690074</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18336675">PMID: 18336675</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17023878">PMID: 17023878</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3758935">PMID: 3758935</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Adducts with  Macromolecules !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Adducts with  Macromolecules !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S7CLLS-1X3RF02-7KT" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S7CLLS-1X3RF02-7KT" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 272: Line 280:
  
 
<h3>Adducts with  Macromolecules</h3>
 
<h3>Adducts with  Macromolecules</h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16088993">PMID: 16088993</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20813101">PMID: 20813101</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16054980">PMID: 16054980</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11022020">PMID: 11022020</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Alcoholic cardiomyopathy !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Alcoholic cardiomyopathy !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S7VZHJ-NDG9DM-8F6" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S7VZHJ-NDG9DM-8F6" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 282: Line 291:
  
 
<h3>Alcoholic cardiomyopathy</h3>
 
<h3>Alcoholic cardiomyopathy</h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10731473">PMID: 10731473</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Cell damage (hepatocytes, etc.) !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Cell damage (hepatocytes, etc.) !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S7N9R8-1H3TCL1-83Z" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S7N9R8-1H3TCL1-83Z" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 292: Line 302:
  
 
<h3>Cell damage (hepatocytes, etc.)</h3>
 
<h3>Cell damage (hepatocytes, etc.)</h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11981132">PMID: 11981132</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12062639">PMID: 12062639</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15767272">PMID: 15767272</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15661629">PMID: 15661629</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Genotoxicity  !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Genotoxicity  !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S7FXK3-BYJKFM-7QX" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S7FXK3-BYJKFM-7QX" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 302: Line 313:
  
 
<h3>Genotoxicity </h3>
 
<h3>Genotoxicity </h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19747536">PMID: 19747536</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10906435">PMID: 10906435</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12383719">PMID: 12383719</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: NF-kB !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: NF-kB !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S7JZ5L-1N4C4JY-7V6" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S7JZ5L-1N4C4JY-7V6" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 312: Line 324:
  
 
<h3>NF-kB</h3>
 
<h3>NF-kB</h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16322595">PMID: 16322595</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17869053">PMID: 17869053</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Chronic gastritis !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Chronic gastritis !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S7XY2K-1LZPHD8-8GP" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S7XY2K-1LZPHD8-8GP" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 322: Line 335:
  
 
<h3>Chronic gastritis</h3>
 
<h3>Chronic gastritis</h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18855985">PMID: 18855985</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Cirrhosis  !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Cirrhosis  !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S7QC3Z-2CZPZFT-888" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S7QC3Z-2CZPZFT-888" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 332: Line 346:
  
 
<h3>Cirrhosis </h3>
 
<h3>Cirrhosis </h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15246203">PMID: 15246203</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20819784">PMID: 20819784</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Generalized Inflammation !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Generalized Inflammation !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S7LPGS-1V33Y6N-7Y5" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S7LPGS-1V33Y6N-7Y5" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 342: Line 357:
  
 
<h3>Generalized Inflammation</h3>
 
<h3>Generalized Inflammation</h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19398236">PMID: 19398236</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567836">PMID: 16567836</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Cytochrome P450 2E1  In liver microsomes !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Cytochrome P450 2E1  In liver microsomes !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S4YF19-H2X3J6-4R4" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S4YF19-H2X3J6-4R4" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 352: Line 368:
  
 
<h3>Cytochrome P450 2E1  In liver microsomes</h3>
 
<h3>Cytochrome P450 2E1  In liver microsomes</h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18393316">PMID: 18393316</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10886461">PMID: 10886461</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10976571">PMID: 10976571</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15554233">PMID: 15554233</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Acetaldehyde  !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Acetaldehyde  !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S4XPX9-1D0TGTG-4QJ" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S4XPX9-1D0TGTG-4QJ" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 362: Line 379:
  
 
<h3>Acetaldehyde </h3>
 
<h3>Acetaldehyde </h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15164086">PMID: 15164086</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11391045">PMID: 11391045</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Inflammatory cytokines !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Inflammatory cytokines !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S7KKHM-13M2WCH-7W6" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S7KKHM-13M2WCH-7W6" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 372: Line 390:
  
 
<h3>Inflammatory cytokines</h3>
 
<h3>Inflammatory cytokines</h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16573591">PMID: 16573591</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12062639">PMID: 12062639</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12062639">PMID: 12062639</a><br /></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Proteotoxicity !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Proteotoxicity !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S7DXBC-145Q15W-7MP" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S7DXBC-145Q15W-7MP" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 382: Line 401:
  
 
<h3>Proteotoxicity</h3>
 
<h3>Proteotoxicity</h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"></div>
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Ethanol !Pop-up-->
 
</div>(...)<!--Pop-up for: Ethanol !Pop-up-->
 
<div class="1J1S4XHS8-1ZJBDDC-4Q3" style="display:none;">
 
<div class="1J1S4XHS8-1ZJBDDC-4Q3" style="display:none;">
 +
  
  
Line 392: Line 412:
  
 
<h3>Ethanol</h3>
 
<h3>Ethanol</h3>
<div class="links"> </div>
+
<div class="links"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12702707">PMID: 12702707</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2700603">PMID: 2700603</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10731473">PMID: 10731473</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20616714">PMID: 20616714</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15112929">PMID: 15112929</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21766417">PMID: 21766417</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12605085">PMID: 12605085</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18418667">PMID: 18418667</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12782250">PMID: 12782250</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18418667">PMID: 18418667</a><br /><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15661629">PMID: 15661629</a><br /></div>
</div>(.//.)(.//.)<!-- Do not edit!  -->
+
</div>(.//.)<h1>Ethanol effects</h1>
 +
 
 +
<p>The mechanisms of ethanol’s pharmacological and physiological effects on cells, the brain, and the behavior of animals are not fully understood. The nown mechanisms of various pathological and metabolic effects of ethanol are  HYPERLINK "http://europepmc.org.sci-hub.org/abstract/med/10677787/?whatizit_url=http://europepmc.org.sci-hub.org/search/?page=1&amp;query=%22hyperlipemia%22" \t "_blank" hyperlipemia (with the rise inHDL),  HYPERLINK "http://europepmc.org.sci-hub.org/abstract/med/10677787/?whatizit_url=http://europepmc.org.sci-hub.org/search/?page=1&amp;query=%22hyperuricemia%22" \t "_blank" hyperuricemia, the role of acetaldehyde toxicity and alcohol-induced oxidative stress.</p>
 +
<p>Ethanol has diverse effects at relevant concentrations yet also exhibits remarkable specificity on various receptors and ion channels. A potential explanation of the diversity and specificity of ethanol action lies in its ability to modulate various cell signaling proteins, including kinases and phosphatases. These proteins then alter receptor or channel function via alterations in phosphorylation state or alterations in trafficking as well as direct the activity of intracellular signaling cascades.</p>
 +
<p>Ethanol acts as a general nervous system depressant. This effect is at least partially mediated by ethanol's actions on ligand-gated channels to depress overall synaptic activity in the nervous system. Ethanol is generally thought to inhibit excitatory transmission and increase inhibitory transmission via its modulation of neurotransmitter receptor-mediated currents. Inhibitory synaptic transmission is mediated by two neurotransmitters, GABA and glycine. Currents mediated by both GABA and glycine neurotransmitter receptors are modulated by ethanol. Ethanol typically potentiates glycine-activated currents in cultured cells, although ethanol has also been shown to inhibit glycinergic current in some cultured rat ventral tegmental neurons. Ethanol's effects on GABAergic currents are characteristically variable and depend on many factors including cell type, dose of ethanol, and method of ethanol application.</p>
 +
<p>Some recent studies have explored novel mechanisms of ethanol on atherogenesis via effects on HDL composition and function. Other studies have focused on changes in levels of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride, and other factors such as inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2(LpPLA2).</p>
 +
<p>The acute in vivo cardiovascular response to moderate levels of ethanol intake involves sympathetic activation, probably due to peripheral vasodilation, and usually results in an increase in heart rate and maintained or elevated cardiac output. In experimental situations where sympathetic or autonomic blockade is applied, it has been demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro that ethanol reduces myocardial contractility independent of neural influence. Studies on isolated cardiomyocytes from a number of species have confirmed that acute ethanol treatment has a direct negative inotropic effect, which cannot be attributed to the release of secondary mediators by other cell types</p>
 +
(.//.)<!-- Do not edit!  -->
 
<html>
 
<html>
 
<link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="/aging-chart/js/jquery.qtip.min.css" />
 
<link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="/aging-chart/js/jquery.qtip.min.css" />

Revision as of 15:17, 17 June 2015

This is a graph with borders and nodes. Maybe there is an Imagemap used so the nodes may be linking to some Pages.

Ethanol effects

The mechanisms of ethanol’s pharmacological and physiological effects on cells, the brain, and the behavior of animals are not fully understood. The nown mechanisms of various pathological and metabolic effects of ethanol are  HYPERLINK "http://europepmc.org.sci-hub.org/abstract/med/10677787/?whatizit_url=http://europepmc.org.sci-hub.org/search/?page=1&query=%22hyperlipemia%22" \t "_blank" hyperlipemia (with the rise inHDL),  HYPERLINK "http://europepmc.org.sci-hub.org/abstract/med/10677787/?whatizit_url=http://europepmc.org.sci-hub.org/search/?page=1&query=%22hyperuricemia%22" \t "_blank" hyperuricemia, the role of acetaldehyde toxicity and alcohol-induced oxidative stress.

Ethanol has diverse effects at relevant concentrations yet also exhibits remarkable specificity on various receptors and ion channels. A potential explanation of the diversity and specificity of ethanol action lies in its ability to modulate various cell signaling proteins, including kinases and phosphatases. These proteins then alter receptor or channel function via alterations in phosphorylation state or alterations in trafficking as well as direct the activity of intracellular signaling cascades.

Ethanol acts as a general nervous system depressant. This effect is at least partially mediated by ethanol's actions on ligand-gated channels to depress overall synaptic activity in the nervous system. Ethanol is generally thought to inhibit excitatory transmission and increase inhibitory transmission via its modulation of neurotransmitter receptor-mediated currents. Inhibitory synaptic transmission is mediated by two neurotransmitters, GABA and glycine. Currents mediated by both GABA and glycine neurotransmitter receptors are modulated by ethanol. Ethanol typically potentiates glycine-activated currents in cultured cells, although ethanol has also been shown to inhibit glycinergic current in some cultured rat ventral tegmental neurons. Ethanol's effects on GABAergic currents are characteristically variable and depend on many factors including cell type, dose of ethanol, and method of ethanol application.

Some recent studies have explored novel mechanisms of ethanol on atherogenesis via effects on HDL composition and function. Other studies have focused on changes in levels of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride, and other factors such as inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2(LpPLA2).

The acute in vivo cardiovascular response to moderate levels of ethanol intake involves sympathetic activation, probably due to peripheral vasodilation, and usually results in an increase in heart rate and maintained or elevated cardiac output. In experimental situations where sympathetic or autonomic blockade is applied, it has been demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro that ethanol reduces myocardial contractility independent of neural influence. Studies on isolated cardiomyocytes from a number of species have confirmed that acute ethanol treatment has a direct negative inotropic effect, which cannot be attributed to the release of secondary mediators by other cell types